Category Archives: Education

Amazon Web Services outage hits sites and apps such as IMDb and Tinder – The Guardian

Users in North America and Europe report patchy service after cloud computing goes down
First published on Tue 7 Dec 2021 17.54 GMT
Several Amazon services – including its website, Prime Video and applications that use Amazon Web Services (AWS) – went down for thousands of users on Tuesday.
Amazon said the outage was probably due to problems related to application programming interface (API), which is a set of protocols for building and integrating application software, Reuters reported.

“We are experiencing API and console issues in the US-East-1 Region,” Amazon said in a report on its service health dashboard, adding that it had identified the cause. By late late afternoon the outage appeared to be partially resolved, with the company saying that it was “working towards full recovery”.
“With the network device issues resolved, we are now working towards recovery of any impaired services,” the company said on the dashboard.
Downdetector showed more than 24,000 incidents of people reporting problems with Amazon. It tracks outages by collating status reports from a number of sources, including user-submitted errors on its platform.
The outage was also affecting delivery operations. Amazon’s warehouse operation use AWS and experienced disruptions, spokesperson Richard Rocha told the Washington Post. A Washington state Amazon driver said his facility had been “at a standstill” since Tuesday morning, CNBC reported.
Other services, including Amazon’s Ring security cameras, mobile banking app Chime and robot vacuum cleaner maker iRobot were also facing difficulties, according to their social media pages.
Ring said it was aware of the issue and working to resolve it. “A major Amazon Web Services (AWS) outage is currently impacting our iRobot Home App,” iRobot said on its website.
Other websites and apps affected include the Internet Movie Database (IMDb), language learning provider Duolingo and dating site Tinder, according to Downdetector.
The outage also affected presale tickets for Adele’s upcoming performances in Las Vegas. “Due to an Amazon Web Services (AWS) outage impacting companies globally, all Adele Verified Fan Presales scheduled for today have been moved to tomorrow to ensure a better experience,” Ticketmaster said on Twitter.
In June, websites including the Guardian, Reddit, Amazon, CNN, PayPal, Spotify, Al Jazeera Media Network and the New York Times were hit by a widespread hour-long outage linked to US-based content delivery network provider Fastly Inc, a smaller rival of AWS.
In July, Amazon experienced a disruption in its online stores service, which lasted for nearly two hours and affected more than 38,000 users.
Users have experienced 27 outages over the past 12 months on Amazon, according to the web tool reviewing website ToolTester.


What does a structural engineers do?

Structural  engineers often work alongside civil engineers and architects as part of a construction team. ‘in a nutshell’, according to the institution of structural engineers, “if a structural was a human body, the architect would be concerned with the body shape and appearance, and the structural engineer would be concerned with the skeleton and sinews.”

Structures must be able to deal with the conditons un which they are buit. A house in canda must have a roof that can bear the weight of heavy snow and a stadium in california must be able to withstand earthquakes. For example, when building bridqes, Designer must take into account the condition of terrain, wind, and water and traffic volume. Structural engineers consider all of these factors and provide technical advice about the project. Structural engineers battle gravity, wind, water, snow and rain every day to provide the world with outstanding structures,” Kate Leighton, a structural engineer, said in “careers in structural engineers, a publication of the institutions of structural engineers. ” they are experts at solving problems, meaning challenges and providing creative solution “.

Structural engineers “design roof framing (beams, fraters, joists, trusses), floor framing (floor decks joists, beams, trusses, girders), arches, columns, braces, frames, foundations and walls”, according to the national Council of structural engineer’s association. “In bridges, they design the deck- or riding surface, girders or stringers, and piers. The materials they use include steel, concrete, wood, masonry and aluminum. Engineers design the structure to resist forces from the gravity, earthquakes, high winds, water soil, collisions, and blast explosion “.

A structural engineer’s job includes:

  • Analyzing blueprints, maps, reports, and topographical and geological data;
  • Estimate the cost and quantities of material, equipment’s and labor;
  • Computing load and grade requirements, water flow rates and material stress factors to determine design specification;
  • Concluding studies of traffic patterns or environments conditions to identify potential problems and asses how they will affect the project;

Critical skills that a person needs in structural engineering include an in depth understanding of physics and mathematics. A structural engineer must also know the properties of various materials.

Engineering include an in-depth understanding of physics and mathematics. A structural engineer must also know the properties of various materials, such as their destiny, hardness, tensile strength, bulk modulus and bending strength. They need to be able to calculate how different materials will perform under stresses such as comprehension, tension, bending and twisting, as well as under various environmental conditions of temperature, pressure, corrosive gases and liquids, and even radiation. They also need to be able to predict how these materials will perform over an extended period of time.

Structural engineers rely increasingly on computer-aided design (CAD) system, so proficiency with computers is essential. In addition to speeding up the drafting process, CAD system allow for quick and easy modifications of designs and three-dimensional (3D) visualization of finished parts and assemblies.

Technologies Reforming Education And Skill Development

With the availability of new technologies such as robotics, cloud computing, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning (ML), there has been tremendous growth in the education and skill development sector. These new technologies help in collecting data related to several parameters such as the academic performance of students, skills of teachers, and the like.

A few decades ago people had to search for information in libraries and other such places containing books and records. Today, due to the availability of the Internet, we can use search engines and assistants to get any information we want without going anywhere. Chalks and blackboards have been replaced by styluses and smartboards in most urban centres of learning.

Recently, the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in India and Microsoft announced a collaboration aimed at providing digital skills to over 100,000 youth in the country over the course of one year. Microsoft Learn resource centre will thus be integrated with the eSkill India digital platform to provide access to personalised learning and in-demand skills.

With the coronavirus pandemic, the need to efficiently adopt and improve remote learning methods has become more indispensable than ever. There is a vast digital divide that brings about the need to make these technologies as accessible as possible to bridge the gap between rural and urban areas in terms of employability and skill. Some of the technologies that play a huge role in contributing to the education and skill development sector are discussed next.

Cloud computing

Cloud computing brings teachers and students on the same platform and provides ease of sharing resources remotely with each other. Teachers can create online courses while students can give virtual exams in organisations like schools and colleges. Working professionals can also take these classes. Assignments are not just limited to documents but can also include uploading a video recording or taking pictures of work and sharing them with peers.

Virtual classrooms allow hiring remote trainers and also reduce infrastructural expenses. There are companies in the field of education like Tata Class Edge, Educomp, and Pearson, who are aiding teachers in classroom teaching.

The storage devices like solid-state drives (SSDs) and hard disc drives (HDDs) must be optimised for cloud computing applications. There is no requirement of purchasing and maintaining servers and data centres. The databases, storage, and other services can be accessed whenever required, thereby saving time.

Most cloud providers ensure a base level of security for their cloud infrastructure. Using a VPN can ensure data security.

The digital assistant Beacon, launched by UK-based Staffordshire University and hosted on the Microsoft Azure cloud computing platform, is capable of answering questions that students might have to help them in studying, checking their moods, and suggesting them activities. If a student is still struggling, the assistant sends alerts to staff members so that they can help.

AI and ML

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have transformed learning to improve its outcomes. Personalised learning caters to the individual needs of students by adopting different teaching methods to make them more comfortable for upcoming tests. This is done by gathering actionable insights for platforms by tracking various data points and keywords from previous feedback, engagement, and interaction levels.

This is necessary to conclude the strong and weak points of different methods. Even checking test papers, grading, paper setting, creating mark-sheets, and tracking progress can be done automatically and intelligently. Many institutes have started using onscreen evaluation systems to auto-calculate scores. Natural language processing (NLP) makes real-time language translation possible, enabling people who speak different languages to communicate with one another.

In Andhra Pradesh, ML was used to collect and analyse the data of students related to parameters such as academic performance, skills of teachers, and the like. The application could find patterns to predict outcomes like probable students who would drop out in 2018-19.

Robotics and 3D printing

As in-demand skills change from time to time, developing problem-solving skills is a must. What could be a better way to engage children than educational robots? Even if the purpose is not to teach coding or robotics, skills such as analytical thinking and teamwork can be developed during the creation, design, and operation of robots. Personal robots are also useful for children with autism to help them in learning, besides improving social interaction skills.

Robotics is also applied in streams like engineering. Educational robotics kit LEGO Mindstorms has been integrated into curriculums at higher education institutions like MIT, University of Maryland, Tufts University, Trinity College, and the University of Manchester, among others. This is used mainly to assist in the mathematical analysis required to move a robot, such as using appropriate formulas and blocks for calculations.

Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATL) established by the government of India in educational institutes across India have do it yourself (DIY) kits and equipment related to robotics like open source microcontroller boards and sensors, 3D printers, and more. As 3D printers are becoming more affordable, they are often found in classrooms (commonly Fused Deposition Modeling).

Physical manipulation of objects like historical artifacts, models of molecules and organs, and other 3D objects helps develop a better understanding and complements the usual theory-based curriculum. In the past, Macquarie University’s Department of Educational Studies, together with the company Makers Empire, did research to conclude how 3D printing could boost creativity, critical thinking, and design skills among primary school students.


Extended reality (XR)—a term that combines augmented (AR), mixed (MR), and virtual reality (VR)—offers a wide range of opportunities for immersive learning and training experiences. This is highly useful in industries like healthcare, manufacturing, and aerospace where accuracy and precision are crucial to prevent dangerous repercussions.
AR and VR can instruct employees when they actually need to use it in real time. Learners can interact with the environment and get a view of different angles for performing their tasks. This reduces the time taken to conceptualise an idea from a video or document and execute it.

Individuals learn by practising and getting feedback on their mistakes and then iterating to improve them. A study by researchers at the Queensland University of Technology revealed that VR simulation improved the technical skills of undergraduate medical imaging students.

United Rentals, for instance, uses immersive learning for open space ratios to bring construction sites into the classroom and claims to have found a forty per cent reduction in training time. Walmart also uses VR to interview and train employees while Verizon has been using it to train its retail workers in handling robberies in stores.


Digital learning guarantees more reach for the current generation of students. Apart from the above mentioned technologies, innovations like video-surveillance via Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure and connected devices increase security, reliability, and capabilities for educational settings.

To utilise the huge amount of data we generate every day, data management software for data analytics makes the necessary data sets easy to understand. Enrollment reports, registration level statistics, and analysis of other such information can boost productivity and decrease costs.

Indian scenario

India has one of the largest higher education systems in the world. There have been numerous issues when it comes to the education sector employing technologies in the country, especially in rural areas. Many educational institutions still don’t have a central repository that collects and organises data. A lot of these don’t have standardised and digitalised things like certificates, marksheets, diplomas, and degrees. Other issues include outdated teaching methods, unavailability of well-trained teachers, inadequate student-teacher ratio, lack of enough teaching resources, and so on.

But with the Internet usage growing rapidly, the foundation for digital education is being laid. Take the example of SP Robotic Works, a company that provides an AI-assisted learning platform for teaching robotics and coding.

This, however, comes with a host of issues like poor connectivity and lack of proper knowledge about how to use these digital technologies and tools. Also, the content is not available in all the regional languages, which may be a barrier for many individuals.

Sometimes there are budget constraints in the initial implementation of efficient hardware and software too. Moreover, maintenance is often neglected. Promising models that can help at a large scale need to be introduced.

There are many restrictions currently with the technologies themselves. For some situations it is yet difficult to program machines to understand complex human interactions that aid people in making better decisions.

However, with the government’s focus on Digital India and digitisation of higher education, there are a growing number of innovations and startups working in this field. India being a leader in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as well as other cutting-edge domains can provide an upper hand. Top institutes in the nation are working in collaboration with the HRD Ministry to develop a comprehensive structure and policy for implementing a robust online education system.

In May, union finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman launched the PM eVidya programme to promote digital education and make e-learning feasible for students and teachers. Under this, the e-learning portal DIKSHA provides e-content and QR coded energised textbooks for all grades, which will benefit nearly 250 million children in various states and union territories. The education content is currently available in fourteen languages, including Kannada, Malayalam, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, among others.

Akshay Chaturvedi, founder & CEO, Edtech Startup Leverage Edu, says, “It is great to see the Union government’s focus on education. The FDI part was in waiting for a long time, glad to have it come through—it will really help us make a big leap! Online education programmes, the introduction of new courses that will push students into careers of tomorrow, and of course ‘the Indian SAT’ for promoting #StudyInIndia—all are in the right direction, and I am personally very excited about us at Leverage Edu helping execute some of these parts.”

The National Education Policy for India, whose draft was prepared last year (and the policy has just been announced), aims to transform curriculum to minimise rote learning and encourage holistic development through skills such as critical thinking, digital literacy, scientific temper, communication, multilingualism, problem-solving, and social responsibility. There are plans to optimise resources and avoid unnecessary duplication of content by adding it to an online digital repository, such as the National Digital Library.
On World Youth Skills Day this year, UNICEF India announced its collaboration with SAP India to improve the employability skills of youth in the country for Covid-19 era and beyond it. Besides career counselling, UNICEF will provide digital education and occupational skillset to the underserved young people. The goal is to impact one million people by the end of 2022.

For helping individuals learn these resources and shape the next generation of professionals, higher education institutions have started to incorporate subjects like cloud computing from Amazon Web Services (AWS) and cybersecurity into their curriculum. Standardisation of teaching, learning, and research tools can improve overall skill development



How To Become A Web Designer

Are you interested in web design? Whether you’re a student, intern, or recent graduate, this guide will fill you in on the education, skills, and knowledge you’ll need to pursue a career as a successful web designer.

What Is a Web Designer?

A web designer is a professional who designs and builds websites. Web designers are generally creative, analytical, and technically inclined.

Web designers combine creative methods and computer science to design user-friendly, properly functioning websites. Not only do they ensure that websites function according to each client’s specifications, but they also make them aesthetically pleasing to the target audience.

Similar Job Titles

Web design draws heavily from the fields of computer science and software engineering, including programming language and coding.

Students who are interested in a career as a web designer may find careers in data science or software engineering equally engaging.

Relevant Education Needed

A career in web design requires, at a minimum, the completion of an associate’s degree in web design or a related field. Students looking to enroll in an associate’s degree program for web design should consider classes in:

  • Web Design Basics
  • Animation
  • Digital Imaging
  • Multimedia Design
  • Programming Languages

Successful completion of these classes will provide aspiring web designers the basic tools and techniques needed to create website layouts.

Positions that require graphic website design will involve more advanced technical skills and expertise. Students interested in advancing to higher roles within the field of web design should consider completing a bachelor’s degree program in web design or a related field.

Website development team sketching wireframe layout design for responsive web content, two UI/UX front end designers in office

Expected Skills

A successful career in web design requires more than just technical skill and know-how. It also requires the ability to understand client wants and needs and translate them into a functioning, creative, and aesthetically pleasing web design.

Hard Skills

Hard skills are concrete, quantifiable abilities. These are the key skills employers look for in a candidate in order to determine whether they possess the intellectual and/or physical requirements to perform the job in question.

Skills such as the ability to type, dunk a basketball, ride a bike, or understand HTML are considered hard skills because they can be easily evaluated. You either know how to ride a bike and dunk a basketball, or you don’t.

The skills expected of aspiring web designers can be separated into two categories: design principles and computer science.

Design Principles

All web designers will be expected to have some design sense. Students aspiring to be web designers need to be creative and understand the elements of design, typography, graphics, and especially design principals such as:

  • Aesthetics and consistency
  • Layout balance
  • Contrast
  • User experience
  • Emphasis

Furthermore, aspiring web designers will be expected to understand how users access and interact with a website, what users are looking for from a website, and how to deliver what the user wants.

Computer Science

Web designers are focused on the programming language of a website (HTML, CSS, etc.) and ensuring that the back-end (the code that makes the website possible) functions properly. Web designers will be expected to have a full comprehension of and experience with the following:

  • Dreamweaver & WordPress – Web development and design applications that enable web designers to design and code websites.
  • JavaScript & HTML – The language in which all the code that structures a website is written.

Soft Skills

Soft skills are subjective and less quantifiable, like “persistence” and “effort.” Successful web designers will need to use the following soft skills on a daily basis.

  • Time Management – Designing a website is no small task. Many aspects of developing websites are technical, intricate and time sensitive. Successful web designers manage their time wisely and never lose sight of a project deadline.
  • Creativity – Web design and creativity go hand in hand, and good designers know how to think outside the box and craft unique, appealing web designs.
  • Flexibility – Web design is not a static process, and there are many variables that can determine the outcome of a successful web design. Successful web designers are adaptive to new developments and flexible in their design method.
  • Objectivity – The best web designers are able to objectively assess a website, their work, and the needs of the user in order to design and develop the optimal website for each client or organization.
  • Communication Skills – Web designers must work with other developers, programmers and software engineers, as well as clients. This requires the ability to communicate clearly with others who don’t necessarily understand the jargon and intricacies of web design.


Now that you understand how to become a web designer, it’s time to put what you know to the test and start designing websites. Web design is a highly visual career, and prospective employers will want to see your capabilities firsthand.

A portfolio is the best way to display what you know to employers and clients alike. They’re also a great way to eliminate the experience gap! Entry-level web designers with a well-rounded, high-quality portfolio can boost their chances of getting hired. A career in web design takes a creative eye for design, an adept hand at coding, and a knack for programming language.

Regardless of your technical, design, and programming skills, it’s important to remember that great web designers are always learning. They stay on top of the latest programming, coding, and design techniques, and they never let their technical skills or their creativity get rusty.

If you’re thinking about applying for jobs, check out our resumes and cover letters. We also have specific interview questions to help you prepare for your next interview!

How To Become A Software Engineer

If you’re interested in computer science, programming, and software, and if you have an appreciation for hands-on work, a career in software engineering might be right for you. Read on to learn what you need to know about the education, skills, and knowledge you’ll need to become a successful software engineer.

What Is a Software Engineer?

A software engineer is someone who develops software. Just as an engineer conceives of and develops machinery, software engineers conceive of and develop software for a range of different applications and clients.

The demand for software engineers grows as fast as the demand for newer and increasingly advanced technology. Software engineers are a critical piece in the development and successful implementation of the software we all use on a daily basis.

Similar Job Titles

Software engineering is a versatile career that delves heavily into computer science and even web development. If you’ve considered a career in software engineering, you may also appreciate a career as a web developer or data scientist.

Relevant Education Needed

Most, if not all, software engineering firms require a bachelor’s degree in software engineering or in a related field like computer science. A bachelor’s degree in software engineering or computer science ensures that you have the mathematical foundation to succeed as a software engineer, plus a comprehensive understanding of different software platforms, coding, and the various programming languages.

Software engineers must be able to apply the principles of mathematical analysis and computer science. Relevant courses in computer science and software engineering include computer security, user interface, and object-oriented software development.

Software engineering is one of the most technical and precise careers in computer science, and organizations want to know for sure that aspiring software engineers have what it takes. A certification verifies a software engineer’s ability and technical expertise. Earning a certification may go a long way in improving a student’s chances of landing an interview and successfully competing against other applicants.

Expected Skills

Software engineers are expected to have a comprehensive technical skillset, including a thorough understanding of:

  • Computer Programming Expressions – A combination of values, variables, and functions interpreted through a programming language and computed by software to produce the desired value.
  • User Access Methods – The platform or technique used to access and retrieve stored data.
  • User Interface Design – The design of user interfaces for computers, apps, software, and other forms of technology.
  • Usability Testing – Method utilized by software engineers to evaluate a product by testing it on users.

Software engineers must extrapolate new ways to approach software development, comprehend advanced development issues, and utilize technology to solve them.

On top of a technical skillset, entry-level software engineers must have the skills to effectively communicate with colleagues and clients alike.

Hard Skills

Hard skills are quantifiable skills like the ability to do calculus, run a seven-minute mile, or calculate long division. These are skills that you either have or don’t have, and it’s easy to determine which category you fall into. The hard skills required of a software engineer can be divided into two basic areas: coding and programming.


Building any type of software requires the ability to code. Coding is an advanced and highly specific form of communication between a computer and the software engineer.

Coding and programming go hand in hand, because software engineers must communicate with the computer via programming language in order to tell it what tasks to perform and how to perform them.


Computers and computer software only speak in a very specific language called statistical programming language. Understanding programming language is a hard skill that every software engineer is required to have. This includes a fluency in object-oriented programming language software such as:

  • Python
  • PHP
  • R
  • C++
  • C#
  • Ruby
  • JavaScript

Soft Skills

Soft skills are less measurable and more open to interpretation, like “positive attitude” and “team player.” Successful software engineers will need to utilize the following soft skills every day on the job.

  • Time Management – Many aspects of developing software are technical, intricate, and time sensitive. Successful software engineers must juggle several projects and manage their time wisely in order to meet deadlines.
  • Attention to Detail – Software engineering takes an eye for detail. Coding and programming language can be very complicated, and one wrong character in a string of code can crash an entire program.
  • Versatility – Great software engineers know how to connect with their team and discover new ways to solve varied coding and development issues, as well as new ways to utilize and profit from the software they develop. They must be versatile enough to adapt their skills to many different project types.
  • Problem Solving – Successful software engineers approach problems objectively. They understand the problem-solving process and can apply it to a wide variety of issues.


Software engineers are in demand, and there will always be a need for the development of new technology. Software engineers provide technological solutions to improve areas like healthcare, financial services, and emergency response.

The skills of a software engineer are complex and specific, and the need for them translates across every sector. There are a vast number of industries hiring software engineers for an untold number of different applications. A career in software engineering takes a keen intellect, an adept hand at coding, and a knack for programming language.

Even after acquiring the necessary education and skills, great software engineers never stop learning. They stay on top of the latest programming, coding, and developer trends. Like most tech careers, software engineering is always evolving, and software engineers must do the same.

If you’re thinking about applying for jobs, check out our software engineer resumes and cover letters. We also have computer science interview questions to help you prepare for your next interview!


What is Electronic?

Electronics means study of flow of electrons in electrical circuits. The word Electronics comes from electron mechanics which means learning the way how an electron behaves under different conditions of externally applied fields. IRE – The Institution of Radio Engineers has given a definition of electronics as “that field of science and engineering, which deals with electron devices and their utilization.” Fundamentals of electronics are the core subject in all branches of engineering nowadays.

Application of Electronics

Electronics has made tremendous advancement during last few decades and our day to day life involves the use of electronic devices. Electronics has played a major role in every sphere of our life; this can be proved with the following application of electronics:

Entertainment and Communication

Availability of economical and fast means of communication paves the way for progress of a country. Few decades ago, the main application of electronics was in the field of telephony and telegraphy. Now, with the aid of radio waves we can transmit any message from one place to another, without the use of wires.

Radio and TV broadcasting offers a means of both entertainment as well as communication. Today, Electronics gadgets are widely used for entertainment.

Defense Applications

Defense applications are completely controlled by electronic circuits. RADAR that is Radio Detection and Ranging is the most important development in electronics field. With the help of radar it is possible to detect and find the exact location of enemy aircraft. Radar and anti craft guns can be linked by an automatic control system to make a complete unit.

Industrial Application

Electronics circuits are widely being used in industrial applications such as control of thickness, quality, weight and moisture content of a material. Electronic amplifier circuits are used to amplify signals and thus control the operations of automatic door openers, power systems and safety devices. Electronically controlled systems are used for heating and welding in the industry. The most important industrial application is that the power stations which generate thousands of megawatts of electricity are controlled by tiny electronic devices and circuits.

Medical Services

Electronics systems are being used by Doctors and scientists in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. X-rays, ECG, Short eave diathermy units and oscillographs are some instruments which have been used so far in medical science. The use of electronics in medical science has grown so extremely and is useful in saving the life of mankind from a lot of sufferings.

Instrumentation – Application of Electronics

Electronics instruments such as cathode-ray oscilloscopes, frequency counters, signal generators, strain gauges are of great help in for precise measurement of various quantities. Without these electronic instruments no research laboratory is complete.

An Introduction to Electronic Components

All electronic circuits contain few basic components. That are three passive components and two active components. An Integrated circuit may comprise of thousands of transistors, few capacitors on a small chip.

Types of Electronic Components:

Passive Components

  1. Resistors
  2. Capacitors
  3. Inductors


Active Components

  1. Tube devices
  2. Semiconductor devices


What are Passive Components?

Resistors, capacitors and inductors are called as passive components. These electronics components are called passive because they by themselves are not capable of amplifying or processing an electrical circuit. However, passive components are as important as active components in any electronic circuit.


The component that opposes the flow of current is called a resistor. This opposing force is called the resistance of the material. It is measured in ohms.

Capacitors: Capacitor is a component that is used to store electrical energy and release them whenever desired. It is measured in farads. Capacitors like resistors can either be fixed or variable. Some common capacitors are mica, ceramic, paper and air gang capacitors.


The electronic component which produces inductance is called an inductor. The inductance is measured in henrys (H). All inductors, like resistors and capacitors are listed as fixed and variable.


What are Active Components?

Active components are used in electronic circuits. They are classified in two categories: Tube devices and semiconductor devices. Due to many advantages of semiconductor devices, they are replacing tube devices in many electronic applications.

Electronics components and electronic applications are penetrated everywhere in our day to day life. Electronics deals in the micro and mili range of voltage, current and power and also control kilo and mega volts, amperes and watts. Today, Electronics is an established branch of engineering.

What Is Hardware Engineering?

Hardware Engineering is the process of designing, developing, testing and producing computer systems and various physical components related to computer systems & Electronics Hardware. With the advent of technology and advances in R&D, the scope of hardware engineering has been expanded to include hardware devices enabling embedded software engineering in non-computer devices.

In embedded systems, hardware engineering comprises of the process of design and development of all electronics related hardware such as sensors, processors and controllers.

The scope of hardware engineering is limited not just to the designing and development of computer or embedded systems, but also to integrate the various devices for the functioning of the entire business system.

With the advent of technology and advances in R&D, hardware engineering is now prevalent in newer fields such as mobile computing and distributed systems, computer vision and robotics, etc.

Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system. This includes the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. It also includes all the parts inside the computer case, such as the hard disk drive, motherboard, video card, and many others. Computer hardware is what you can physically touch.



A computer system consists of two major elements: hardware and software. Computer hardware is the collection of all the parts you can physically touch. Computer software, on the other hand, is not something you can touch. Software is a set of instructions for a computer to perform specific operations. You need both hardware and software for a computer system to work.

Some hardware components are easy to recognize, such as the computer case, keyboard, and monitor. However, there are many different types of hardware components. In this lesson, you will learn how to recognize the different components and what they do.

Types of Computers

Before looking at the various components, it is useful to distinguish between two different types of computers: desktop computers and laptop computers. A desktop computer consists of a computer case and a separate monitor, keyboard, and mouse. As the name suggests, this type of computer is typically placed on a desk and is not very portable.


desktop computer

Typical desktop computer with a separate computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse

A laptop computer has the same components but integrated into a single, portable unit.

laptop computer

Typical laptop computer with integrated hardware components

While these two types of computers look quite different, they have the same general hardware components.

Hardware Components

Let’s start with the computer case. This is the metal enclosure that contains many of the other hardware components. It comes in various shapes and sizes, but a typical tower model is between 15-25 inches high. Want to know what’s inside? Okay, go get a screwdriver and let’s open it up. Seriously, if you are really into computers, the best way to learn is to actually get hands-on. To save us some time, however, have a look at this desktop computer case. A computer enthusiast replaced the metal side panel with a transparent one, so we can have a look inside.

Although that photo looks pretty cool, it is a bit hard to recognize the individual components, especially with all the connecting wires running through it. This figure shows a more schematic version of a desktop computer, which makes it easier to point out the essential hardware components.

What is Chemical engineering?

Chemical engineering is a part of engineering that applies physical sciences (physics and chemistry) and life sciences (microbiology and biochemistry) together with applied mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy. Essentially, chemical engineers design large-scale processes that convert chemicals, raw materials, living cells, microorganisms and energy into useful forms and products.

Responsibilities of Chemical Engineers

■      Specifically, chemical engineers improve food processing techniques, and methods of producing fertilizers, to increase the quantity and quality of available food.

■      They also construct the synthetic fibers that make our clothes more comfortable and water resistant; they develop methods to mass-produce drugs, making them more affordable; and they create safer, more efficient methods of refining petroleum products, making energy and chemical sources more productive and cost effective.

■      Chemical engineers also develop solutions to environmental problems, such as pollution control and remediation.

■      And yes, they process chemicals, which are used to make or improve just about everything you see around you.


Chemical engineers face many of the same challenges that other professionals face, and they meet these challenges by applying their technical knowledge, communication and teamwork skills; the most up-to-date practices available; and hard work. Benefits include financial reward, recognition within industry and society, and the gratification that comes from working with the processes of nature to meet the needs of society.