Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that makes food. Early scientific research into food technology concentrated on food preservation. Nicolas apparat’s development in 1810 of the canning process was a decisive event. The process wasn’t called canning then and apart did not really know the principles on which his process worked. But canning has had a major impact on food preservation techniques.
Louis Pasteur’s research on the spoilage of whine and his description of how to avoid spoilage in 1864 was an early attempt to apply scientific knowledge to food handling. Besides research into wine spoilage, Pasteur researched the production of alcohol, vinegar, wines and beer and the souring of milk. He developed pasteurization – the process of heating milk and milk products to destroy food spoilage and disease producing organisms. In his research into food technology, Pasteur became the pioneer into bacteriology and of modern preventive medicine.
Freeze – dried coffee, a form of instant coffee
Development in food technology have contribute greatly to the food supply and have changed our world. Some of these developments are:
Instantized milk powder – D.D. Peebles (us patent 2,835,586) developed the first instant milk powder, which has become the basis for a variety of new products that are rehydratable. This process increases the surface area of the powdered product by partially rehydrating spray – dried milk powder.
Freeze-drying- the first application of the freeze drying was most likely in the pharmaceutical industry; however, a successful large-scale industrial application of the process was the development of continuous freeze drying of coffee. High- temperature short time processing these processes for the most part is characterized by rapid heating and cooling, holding for a short time at a relatively high temperature and filling aseptically into sterile containers.
Decaffeination of coffee and tea was first developed on a commercial basis in Europe around 1900. The process is described in U.S. patent 897,763. Green coffee beans are treated with water, heat and solvents to remove the caffeine from the beans.
Process optimization – food technology now allows production of foods to be more efficient, oil saving technologies are now available on different forms. Production methods and methodology have also become increasingly sophisticated.
Historically, consumers paid little attention to food technologies. Nowadays the food production chain is long and complicated, and foods and food technologies are diverse. Consequently, consumers are uncertain about the determinants of food quality and safety and find it difficult to understand them. Now, acceptance of food products very often depends on perceived benefits and risks associated with the food. Popular views of food processing technologies matter. Especially innovative food processing technologies often are perceiving as risky by consumers.
Acceptance of the different food technologies varies. While pasteurization is well recognized and accepted, high pressure treatment and even microwaves often are perceived as risky. Studies by the high-tech Europe project found that traditional technology were well accepted in contrast to innovative technologies.
Consumers from their attitude towards innovative food technologies through three main mechanisms: firstly, through knowledge or beliefs about risks and benefits correlated with the technology; secondly, through attitudes based on their own experience; and thirdly, through application of higher order values and beliefs. A number of scholars consider the risk-benefits trade-off as one of the main determinations of consumer acceptance, although some researchers places more emphasis on the role benefit perception (rather than risk) in consumer acceptance. Roger (2010) defines five major criteria that explains differences in the acceptance of new technology by consumers: complexity, compatibility, relative advantages, Trial ability and observability.
Acceptance of innovative technologies can be improved by providing non- emotional and concise information about these new technological process’s methods. The high-tech project also suggests that written information has a have higher impact on consumers than audio- visual information.